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AREAS OF FOCUS FOR GRAMMAR (by grade)
7th grade grammar
Noun types: Concrete, Abstract, Singular, Plural, Collective
Pronouns: Nominative, Objective, Possessive, Singular, Plural, Relative
Noun Functions: Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Object of the preposition, Possessive Modifier, Appositive, Predicate Nominative, Independent by address
Verbs: Transitive, Intransitive, Linking
Other parts of speech: Preposition, Adjective, Article, Adverb, Coordinating Conjunction, Subordinating Conjunction
Types of clauses: Dependent / Subordinate, Independent
Types of dependent clauses: Adverb, Adjective, Noun
Sentence Types: Simple, Compound, Complex, Compound-Complex
Verbals: Gerund, participle, infinitive
9th grade grammar:
Noun Functions: (review)
Parts of speech: (review)
Verbs: Transitive, Intransitive, Linking, Auxiliary, Progressive, Perfect, Subjunctive
Verbals: Gerund, Participle, Infinitive
Types of dependent clauses: Adverb, Adjective, Noun
Phrases: Prepositional, Infinitive, Appositive, Other noun phrases (i.e. direct object)
ORDER OF OPERATIONS FOR SENTENCE ANALYSIS
Analysis is the breaking down of a system into component parts to understand how they interact. Grammar is an excellent way to practice this important critical thinking skill. A sentence is, after all, a type of system. In order to help students understand the component parts of a sentence system, I have created an order of operations for analyzing sentence grammar (based on the old math strategy affectionately known as PEMDAS).
1. Identify the VERBS.
Note whether they are ACTION VERBS or BEING VERBS. Often verbs are defined as actions. I belive this is a limited definition; I would offer that a verb is a noun that takes place in time.
Identify any auxiliary verbs that help form a future, perfect or progressive tense.
Identify any modals (rare)
Identify verb moods (subjunctive, for instance- very rare)
2. Identify the SUBJECTS of those verbs.
These subjects must be either nouns or pronouns. One of the major mistakes made in the teaching of grammar is to define the subject as the "subject of the sentence". It is not; it is the subject of the verb of the sentence.
3. Identify the PREPOSTIONS.
The numebr one reason why a sentence is difficult to understand is because of the number of prepositions. By breaking out the prepositions early, the sentence tends to becme more comprehensible to the students.
4. Identify the OBJECTS OF THE PREPOSITIONS.
They are always nouns or pronouns, and sometimes they are an entire phrase.
5. Identify the COMPLEMENTS to the verbs.
Identifying the complements will help determine what type of verb is being used, whether it is TRANSITIVE, INTRANSITIVE, or LINKING.To identify complements involves a curious circular reasoning: The type of complements determine the type of verb, and the type of verb determines the type of complement. The complements are always nouns or pronouns. Complements include:
a. DIRECT OBJECTS
b. PREDICATE NOMINATIVES
At this point, also identify any AUXILIARY VERBS
6. Identify the VERBALS
These are verbs acting as other parts of speech. They include: GERUNDS, PARTICIPLES, and INFINITIVES.
7. Identify the MODIFIERS
These are a mixed bag of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, articles and adverbs. Identify them systematically.
a. Identify the POSSESSIVE MODIFIERS (these are always nouns or pronouns).
b. Identify the ADJECTIVES (this includes predicate adjectives (a type linking verb complements) as well as regular
c. Identify the APPOSITIVE NOUNS. Sometimes the appositives are an entire phrase, usually enclosed by commas
. d. Identify the ARTICLES
c. Identify the ADVERBS. Please note that some of these may double as SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.
8. Identify the Nouns that are INDEPENDENT BY ADDRESS. These are always set off by commas, and sometimes by colons.
9. Identify the CONJUNCTIONS
There are three types of conjunctive strategies used in sentences:
a. COORDINATING (identified by the mneumoninc device: FANBOYS)
c. SEMI - COLON (Often followed by an INDEPENDENT MARKER WORD)
10. At this point, anything left will be an INTERJECTION
11. Identify the CLAUSES
There are two types of clauses:
b. DEPENDENT (or SUBORDINATE)
- dependent clauses are either adjective, adverbial, or noun
12. Identify the SENTENCE TYPE
There are four types of sentences:
d. COMPOUND - COMPLEX
Nouns come in a varity of types, including: common and proper; concrete and abstract; singular, plural, and collective; and possessive. To get further practice in identifying different types of nouns, download and print the following worksheet.
Noun Types practice worksheet
Nouns function in various ways in sentences. These include: subject of a verb, direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, in apposition, modifying another noun, as a predicate nominative, and independent by address. To get further practice identifying the differnt ways in which nouns function, download and print the following worksheet
Pronouns take the place of nouns. They can be categorized as follows: Singular / Plural; Nominative, Objective, Possessive; 1st, 2nd, or third person; Masculine, Feminine, or Neuter; Relative, Interrogative, Demonstrative, Reflexive, and Indefinite. Following is an outline detailing the different types of pronouns by category:
Verbals are verbs that also function as a different part of speech. One of the most common verbals is a gerund. Following is a worksheet with description of gerunds.
Relative Clauses (Adjective and Noun Clauses)
These clauses are generally introduced using Relative Pronouns. Adjective clauses modify a noun (usually a noun in an independent clause), while noun clauses function as a noun within a larger clause (usually an independent clause).