Trimester 2: The Human Body (the Muscular-Skeletal System and the Nervous System)

Part 1:Bones and Joints

Big Ideas--
The skeleton provides structure and support for your body, and protection for your inner organs. There are about 206 bones in an adult body. Infants are born with more bones and more cartilage. As they grow, some bones fuse together and get larger. 

Names of major bones: 

  • skull / cranium, 
  • jaw / mandible 
  • ribs 
  • hip / pelvis 
  • spine / vertebrae 
  • shoulder / scapula 
  • femur / thighbone 
  • patella / knee

For other bones, refer to page 3 in the Brown Human Body book or the bone names poster in their science notebooks.

Parts of a bone: 

  • hard outer layer/compact bone
  • spongy inner layer
  • bone marrow (red and yellow)
  • blood

Types of connective tissue: 

  • cartilage firm, bendable tissue that covers the ends of some  bones.
  •  ligament strong, stretchy tissues that connect bones to other bones at joints
  • tendon tough bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones

Types of joints: Pay attention to how each of these joints moves your body (if they do!)

  • hinge joint- at knees, elbows, fingers, & toes (This allows movement in only one direction, like the hinge of a door.)

  • fused/fixed joint- your skull and your pelvis (This joint allows for NO movement!)


  • ball & socket jointat the shoulder & hip (This allows bones to swivel in nearly all directions.) 

  • glidingat the vertebrae, wrist, & ankle (These joints have two flat surfaces that glide smoothly over one another. Pivot and saddle joints are special types of gliding joints.) 

  • pivot- at the neck (allows you to turn your head like the hands going around on a clock. 

  • saddle- You've only got two, in your thumbs(This allows your thumb to move side to side and back and forth.  It also gives you precision grip. That means you can touch the tip of your thumb to the tip of each finger.)  

Do you know what these words mean? (* means it is a bonus word)

Skeleton, Bone, Marrow, Ligament, Cartilage, Joint, Pelvis *, Bones,Skull, Tibia*, Ribs, Vertebrae, Fibula *, Fracture, Femur, Radius *

Can you describe the four different types of joints? How do they move? Can you give me an example of where are they in your body?

· Fixed Joint: examples_______________________________________

Moves how__________________________________________ 

   The fixed joint in my skull helps me by protecting my brain

· Hinge Joint: example_______________________________________ 

Moves how__________________________________________

   The ___ joint in my ___ helps me _____.

· Ball & Socket Joint: example_________________________________

Moves how__________________________________________ 

   The ___ joint in my ___ helps me _____.

· Gliding Joint: example_______________________________________

Moves how__________________________________________ 

   The ___ joint in my ___ helps me _____.

BONUS: Pivot Joint: ***example_______________________________________

Moves how__________________________________________

BONUS: Saddle Joint: ***example_______________________________________

Moves how__________________________________________

Can you explain why it is important for each joint to be where it is? What would happen if you had a different type of joint at your knee or in your spine or on your skull?


Part 2:Muscles  

***Checkpoint/Assessment will be February 22, 2017**** 

Big Ideas--

  • Muscles work with your skeleton to move your body and protect your inner organs. All muscles contract (shorten/tighten) and relax (lengthen).

  • Muscles can be VOLUNTARY or INVOLUNTARY. You can control voluntary  muscles, but you cannot control your involuntary muscles.

  • There are three main types of muscles:
  1. Skeletal muscles are attached to your skeleton and work in pairs to contract and relax to move your body. Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles. Some examples of skeletal muscles are biceps and triceps.

  2. Smooth muscles are involuntary muscles. They help move food down your esophagus to your stomach, move blood throughout your body, and help your lungs breath in and out.

  3. Cardiac muscles are also involuntary muscles. They are only found in the heart. Cardiac muscles never get tired as they help your heart pump blood throughout your body.

    Remember: Muscles are attached to bones by TENDONS.  Bones are attached to each other by LIGAMENTS.     (bone to bone=ligaments) (muscle to bone=tendons) 

Part 3: Nervous System

**Nervous System Checkpoint/Assessment early-mid March, 2017***

There are 3 main parts to the Nervous System: 

1. The Brain 
2. The Spinal Cord
3. The Nerves

The Nervous System helps control how your body works. The nervous system takes information from inside your body (hunger, feeling happy or sick) and information about the world outside your body (from your 5 senses).  It makes meaning out of this information, and then decides what your body should do.  If you feel hungry, your nervous system tells your body to go to the kitchen to make yourself a sandwich. If your ears hear your dog barking, your nervous system helps you understand the sound, and you move to the door, open it, and let your dog out.  
There are three parts to the brain. 
   The CEREBRUM is the biggest part.  It lets you think, learn, and remember.  It makes meaning our of the information you get from your 5 senses.
   The CEREBELLUM (little brain) is small and in the back of your head.  It controls movement and balance. 
   The BRAIN STEM is the oldest part of your brain.  It controls involuntary activities like breathing and blood pressure. 

How do messages travel through your nervous system? 
Sensory nerves send messages from your sense organs TO your brain. Your brain sends a message through your motor nerves to make your muscles move. 

Example #1
Suppose you touch an ice cube.  The ice cube is a stimulus.  The receptors in your skin sense the cold temperature and send a message through your sensory nerves, to your spinal cord, and then to your brain. Your brain understands the message and sends another message back through the spinal cord, through your motor nerves to tell your muscles to move. You drop the ice cube.  This action of dropping the ice cube is your response.   stimulus triggers, or causes, a response. 

Example #2
Suppose you hear a dog bark.  The barking sound is the stimulus.  The receptors in your ears send the message (along sensory nerves) to your brain. Your brain makes meaning of the sound. Your brain decides you should let the dog out. Your brain send a message along motor nerves through your spinal cord to the muscles in your body so you move to the door and open it.  Opening the door is your response.  

Other things to know: 

A nerve cell is called a neuron.  Messages travel from nerve cell to nerve cell without ever touching each other!  

Receptors are nerve endings that can sense things.  In your tongue, taste buds help you sense taste. There are three kinds of receptors in skin.  Pain receptors are closest to the surface, then temperature receptors, and deepest down are pressure receptors

Big Ideas--


Trimester 1: Ecosystems and Animals Adaptations

Second Science Checkpoint/Test will be Dec. 2nd. See Ms. Billington's Quizlet site to review vocabulary for this assessment.  
My class is "Msbillington"
Look for the list "Adaptations #2"
This assessment does touch on the terrariums and aquariums created in school, so review food chain, water cycle, and photosynthesis vocabulary, too. It will make your essay stronger! 

Newer vocabulary is starred below. 


TRI 1 STUDY GUIDE & Important Vocabulary

Ecosystem:All the living and non-living things in an area.
Food chain: the process of eating and being eaten
Food web: when food chains connect
Energy Pyramid: a diagram that shows how energy is lost as it goes through a food chain. 
Producers:the plants in a food chain or web. Plants are the only living things that can make their own food from the sun's energy through the process of photosynthesis. 
Consumers: the animals in a food chain or web. Consumers EAT things in order to get energy. 
Energy: the power that living things use for growing, breathing, and moving.
Herbivores: animals that eat plants. These are the primary consumers because they are the FIRST animals to eat something.
Carnivores: animals that eat meat (other animals.) These are secondary consumers because they are the second animals in a food chain.
Omnivores: animals that eat both plants and other animals.
Scavengers: animals that eat dead animals. 
Decomposers: animals that eat the leftover bits of dead plants and animals and turn them into healthy, nutrient-rich soil (humus.) When soil is full of humus and nutrients, more plants can grow! 
*Predators: animals that hunt for food. They are carnivores. 
*Prey: animals that are hunted for food. They are usually herbivores or smaller carnivores than the predators. 
*Photosynthesis: the process by which plants combine energy from the sun, water and nutrients from the soil, Chlorophyll in their leaves, and carbon dioxide from the air, to make their own food energy--a form of sugar called glucose. Plants are the only living things that can make their own food. 
The Water Cycle: the process by which water evaporates, or changes from a liquid (water) to water vapor (a gas), condenses in cold air to form clouds, and then falls to the earth again as precipitation, rain, sleet, snow, or hail. 
*Terrarium: an enclosure for air, plants, and small land animals 
*Aquarium: an enclosure for water, water plants, and small water animals 

Check out Brain Pop, Brain Pop Jr., and Study Jams videos on food chains, food webs, the energy pyramid, photosynthesis, animal adaptations, and habitats.

Animal Adaptations Key concepts: 

The BIG Idea: Adaptations help animals SURVIVE.

  • Adaptations help animals survive in their habitats or homes.
  • Adaptations help animals get food.
  • Adaptations help animals avoid being eaten.
  • Adaptations help animals finds mates.
There are two types of adaptations: 
  1. Structural, or Physical adaptations are parts/features of the animal's body.
  2. Behavioral adaptations are the ways animals act or behave. These are sometimes referred to as instincts.

Vocabulary: adaptations, camouflage, mimicry, adaptation, structural, behavioral, instincts


Tri 3: Rocks and Minerals 

Study Guide
Earth has four main layers: (from outside to inside)

1. Crust (like a thin, rocky skin for the earth)

2. Mantle (mostly solid)

3. Outer Core (a molten metallic layer)

4. Inner Core (solid and iron-rich at the very center of the earth)

Interesting fact: **There are more than 3,500 minerals on earth! **

A mineral is a nonliving, solid material in or on the earth.

Minerals are the ingredients of rocks.

A mineral’s properties (attributes) help us tell minerals apart.

  • Crystal shape: A mineral’s atoms are arranged in a regular, repeating pattern called crystal structure. Sometimes the crystal shows, and this helps you identify the mineral. You will see flat sides (faces) that join at different angles to make shapes like cubes or prisms.
  • Cleavage: when a mineral breaks with smooth, flat surfaces
  • Fracture: when a mineral breaks with curved, uneven, jagged surfaces
  • Color: red, gray, pink, silver, white, cloudy, colorless
  • Streak: the color you see when you rub a mineral across an unglazed tile.
  • Luster: the way light is reflected from the mineral’s surface
  • Hardness: a mineral’s resistance to being scratched

The Mohs scale is used to measure how hard a mineral is. The hardest mineral, a diamond, can only be scratched by another diamond. Its hardness number is 10. The softest mineral is talc. It is easily scratched with a fingernail. Its hardness number is 1.

The 2nd checkpoint assessment will be June 1st or 2nd.

ROCKS: Rocks are made up of different minerals.

Rocks form in different ways.

Rocks change over time. (The Rock Cycle)

There are three types of rocks:

  • Igneous: formed when melted rock, called magma, cools
  • Sedimentary: made of layers of sediment from any rock that has been weathered by wind, water, temperature change or plants
  • Metamorphic: made when any rock (Igneous, Sedimentary, or Metamorphic) gets changed by GREAT HEAT and PRESSURE. These rocks go through metamorphosis. (Remember frogs and butterflies?)

The Rock Cycle diagram is used to explain how rocks form and change.

Go to the LINKS page on our Grade Three website to see some awesome videos and interactive sites illustrating the Rock Cycle!


Quizlet Bones & Joints vocabulary

Social Studies websites:

Map skills


SOCIAL STUDIES: Chapter 3 test,Thursday, December 18, 2014 

Reread SS book pages 42-59 (Chapter 3, lessons 1 & 2)
BIG Ideas:

  • Mountains affect the land around them. Mountains affect weather.
  • Plants and animals have adaptations to help them survive in a desert. 
Vocabulary to study: 
mountain, physical feature, temperature, timberline, desert, climate



Reread SS book pages 4-25 (Chapter 1)
Big Ideas:


  • Oceans have salt water, Rivers, Lakes and Ponds have fresh water.
  • Oceans and Rivers are alike: both have plants and animals living in them, both change the land around them (floods, erosion, deposition) both used for recreation.
  • Oceans and Rivers are different: salt/fresh water, rivers move downhill and can flow fast or slowly. The faster they flow, the deeper they cut into the earth. Rivers have a beginning and an end. They may start in lakes, underground streams, or from melting snow. Oceans are huge but do not move from one place to another (I’ll mention currents only if they ask.)
  • Water causes erosion, the carrying away of land, and deposition, the building up of deposits of new soil, which changes the shape of land.
  • Rivers cut into land, creating canyons, valleys, and sometimes lakes.
  • Make sure you know the compass rose, both cardinal and intermediate directions! see pp.8&9 and study guide page 2.