• SEX EDUCATION
A. COURSE REQUIREMENTS
1. attitude and behavior
a. 4 quizzes – 15 points each
b. final test – 40 points
BASIC IDEA OF SEX EDUCATION
ABSTINENCE – the decision not to have sexual intercourse. It is a sure way
to prevent pregnancy. Many
teens realize that this choice has several advantages, including no worries
about contraception or
pregnancy and no risk of sexually transmitted diseases.
B. question box
C. reading materials
2. text book
D. Puberty – a period of time when sex glands begin producing hormones
which account for physical and
1. Physical changes
a. Sudden growth spurt – girls grow faster than boys at first but boys
eventually catch up and pass
b. girls – develop rounded breasts and hips, sweat glands become more
active, hair grows under the
arms and around sex organs, “down” grows on the upper lip, the voice
changes, and acne develops.
c. boys – the shoulders broaden and muscles develop. Sweat glands become
more active and hair grows
under the arms and around sex organs. Whiskers develop, the voice deepens
and acne develops.
d. coping with physical changes
1. wash frequently with soap and eat a balanced diet for acne.
2. get proper rest, regular exercise, and take frequent showers.
2. Emotional changes
a. mood swings
b. depressed one day and on top of the world the next for no apparent
c. readiness for new rights may cause family tensions
d. ideas, emotions, and feelings become stronger
e. close attachments are formed
f. experimenting with new things
Coping with emotional changes
* exercise and eat a balanced, proper diet
* develop outside interests
* improve communication with parents, teachers, and counselors.
*** DISCUSS PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL CHANGES WITH YOUR
3. HORMONES – chemicals that regulate life activities such as
reproduction and growth. Hormones are
produced and released directly into the blood by endocrine glands.
Glands and hormones
1. pituitary gland – produces the hormones called gonadotropins which
stimulate sex organs.
2. testes – produces the hormone testosterone which controls the
development of sex organs and
secondary sex characteristics in males.
3. ovaries produce the hormones
a. estrogen which controls the development of sex organs and
secondary sex characteristics in
progesterone which regulates pregnancy by preparing the uterus for
implantation of a fertilized egg. It
also suppresses the menstrual flow.
Female anatomy and physiology
A. Sex glands
1. ovaries – 2 glands which produce the sex cell (egg or ova) in
2. mammary glands – produce milk for nourishing a baby after birth.
B. secondary sex organs
1. uterus – the main reproductive organ. It is a pear shaped,
muscular organ where the
fertilized egg grows into a new offspring.
2. oviduct (fallopian tubes) – connects the ovaries and the uterus
allowing eggs to travel from
the ovaries to the uterus carried along by hair-like projections called
3.vagina (birth canal) – a canal which leads from outside the body
to the uterus. Sperm are
released into the vagina where they move from the vagina through the cervix
and into the fallopian
4. cervix – the neck or opening of the uterus.
*** STUDY HANDOUTS AND NOTES
C. Menstrual cycle – a series of change that occur in the female
beginning at puberty. During the
cycle the lining of the uterus thickens and the blood supply to it
increases to nourish a developing
1. Ovulation – occurs when a ripened egg cell is released from an ovary
and enters a fallopian tube.
Eggs are usually fertilized 24 to 48 hours after ovulation. Fertilization
occurs in a fallopian tube
2. Menstruation – happens when an egg is not fertilized. The soft lining
of the uterus breaks down
and passes out of the vagina. This period of blood, cell, and mucus
discharge lasts 3-6 days on
average. Eggs are released about 14 days before the start of a menstrual
3. P.M.S. (Premenstrual Syndrome) – symptoms such as weight gain, joint
pain, mood swings, and crying
spells which appear in some women 7 to 10 days before menstruation.
4. Menopause – occurs when a female stops having her menstrual cycle,
usually between the ages of 40
5. Cervical cancer – cancer of the cervix.
Factors associated with cervical cancer:
a. viral infections acquired during sexual intercourse.
b. sexual activity – the more partners and/or the earlier the age
the greater the risk.
SEXUALLY ACTIVE WOMEN SHOULD HAVE AN ANNUAL PAP SMEAR TO TEST FOR CERVICAL
Male anatomy and physiology
A. testes – male glands that produce the male sex cell (sperm)
B. scrotum – a protective sac which contains the testes.
C. penis – serves a dual purpose:
a. carries urine from the bladder .
b. delivers semen (sperm and other fluids) to the vagina.
D. prostate gland – located near the bladder. It makes a whitish fluid
that combines with sperm to
E. vas deferens – a tube-like structure that carries sperm from the testes
to the urethra.
F. foreskin - the loose skin at the end of the penis.
G. seminal vesicles – located behind the bladder. Their ducts join with
the vas deferens to form the
ejaculatory ducts. It produces a fluid that makes the bulk of semen.
ABSTINENCE IS THE DECISION NOT TO HAVE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE. IT IS A SURE WAY
TO PREVENT PREGNANCY. MANY
TEENS RELIZE THAT THIS CHOICE HAS SVERAL ADVANTAGES INCLUDING NO WORRIES
ABOUT CONTRACEPTION OR
PREGNANCY AND NO RISK OF SEXUALLY TRANSMISSIBLE DISEASES.
*** PREPARE FOR 1ST QUIZ TOMORROW.
A. Intercourse – the sexual union of a male and female by the insertion of the male penis into the female
B. Egg and Sperm
1. egg (ovum) – the female reproductive cell that comes from the ovaries.
2. sperm (spermatozoa) – the male reproductive cell that comes from the testes.
Sperm and Egg
C. Fertilization – the union of an egg and sperm. Another term is conception.
D. Zygote – when the union of an egg and sperm take place the resulting combination is called a zygote, a
E. Genetics – the study of heredity, which is the transmission of traits from parent to child. This is done by
the replication of rod-like bodies called chromosomes found on sex cells. Genes, the carriers of inherited
traits are found on chromosomes. Each individual cell has 46 chromosomes except for sex cells which have only
23. Two of the chromosomes in a body cell are sex chromosomes. There are two kinds of sex chromosomes, X and
Y. Females have 2 X chromosomes (XX) and males have 1 X and 1Y (XY).
A. contraception – the use of any device, method, or medication that prevents conception as the result of
B. contraceptives – the general name given to the devices, methods, and/or medications that prevent
Contraceptives fall into 2 categories:
***** Abstinence is the decision not to have sexual intercourse. It is a sure way to prevent pregnancy. Many
teens realize that this choice has several advantages including no worries about contraception or pregnancy
and no risk of sexually transmissible disease.
Prepare for a quiz on today’s material.
I. Pregnancy and childbirth
A. Signs and symptoms
1. missed period ( 1st and most obvious)
2. nausea (morning sickness)
3. unusual tiredness
4. full, tender breasts
5. frequent urination
6. change in appetite
B. Implantation – once fertilization occurs, the zygote attaches to the wall of the uterus.
II. Stages of pregnancy
A. Gestation period (pregnancy)
the period between conception and birth. Lasts for about 40 weeks or 9 months. During this time the
zygote becomes an embryo. It is an embryo for the first 8 weeks. After 8 weeks the unborn child is called a
fetus and can be recognized as human.
B. Hormonal changes
hormones are released that stop the menstrual flow and cause the breasts to start producing milk.
C. Physical changes
there is a gain in weight. The enlargement of the uterus causes an increase in girth. Limbs swell
because of fluid retention.
Average weight gain during pregnancy
7 pounds is fetus
4 pounds is amniotic fluid
2 pounds due to increase in fetus size
3 pounds due to breast enlargement
3 pounds due to increased body fluids
3 pounds due to increased lean body mass
3 pounds due to increased fat
Total weight gain is 25 pounds
D. Terms of pregnancy
1. amniotic sac – a membrane that surrounds the embryo and fetus inside the uterus.
2. amniotic fluid – the watery fluid contained in the amniotic sac that act as a protective cushion for the
3. placenta (afterbirth) – an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides nourishment
from the mother’s blood for the growing embryo and fetus.
4. umbilical cord – the rope-like structure, a series of blood vessels attached to the placenta at one end
and the baby’s umbilicus (navel) at the other, through which nourishment and oxygen are supplied and waste
materials are carried away during pregnancy.
5. Gynecologist – a physician specializing in the treatment of female sexual and reproductive organs.
6. Obstetrician – a medical doctor who specializes in the care of females during labor, delivery, and
immediately after labor and delivery.
III. Types of birth
A. natural birth – this birth occurs when the mother goes into labor, which is the term for the uterine
contractions that expel the fetus from the uterus, and the baby is delivered from the vagina.
B. Cesarean birth – this birth occurs when the baby is surgically removed from the uterus by cutting through
the walls of the abdomen and the uterus.
*** Discuss with your parents and develop a list of physical, social, and financial factors associated with
I. Prenatal care
A. Topics of care and external factors
1. a mother should provide an adequate diet to provide the proper nutrients, minerals, and vitamins
needed for the growth of new cells.
2. the age of the mother has an influence on child bearing, teenage mothers often have underweight
3. infections may harm developing babies, German measles may result in hearing, sight, or circulation
4. drugs and medicine taken by the mother pass to the baby, no drug should be taken unless prescribed by a
5. alcohol can cause mental and physical defects.
6. smoking increases the risk of miscarriage or the premature birth of an underweight baby.
7. radiation (x-rays) can cause changes in the genes of sex cells, x-rays should be avoided during pregnancy.
8. the mother should be under the care of a doctor and should be following an exercise program.
II. Complications of birth
A. miscarriage – the natural expulsion of the fetus before the 28th week of pregnancy.
B. multiple births
1. identical twins – form from I egg and I sperm, the egg mass then will break into 2 separate cell
masses, each with identical genes and identical traits.
2. fraternal twins – results from double ovulation – 2 eggs and 2 sperm, fraternal twins may be of
different sexes and have different traits.
3. triplets, quadruplets, quintuplets…..
may form when one cell mass splits into 3, 4, or 5 parts or 3, 4, or 5 eggs are released or by any
combination of twins or triplets.
C. Other births
1. breech birth – the baby is delivered buttocks first.
2. premature birth – the baby is delivered after 6 months of development but before the ninth month.
3. low birth weight – a full term baby weighing less than 5 ½ pounds.
*** PREPARE FOR A QUIZ ON DAY 7 AND 8 MATERIAL.
1. about 415,000 teenage girls give birth each year.
2. babies born to teen mothers have a higher risk of serious health problems.
3. about 725,000 teens between 15 and 19 become pregnant each year.
4. More than 10% of all U.S. births are to teenage girls.
5. 30% of teenage girls become pregnant at least once before the age 20.
6. 25% of teenage mothers have a second baby within 2 years.
7. Teen mothers are more likely to smoke during pregnancy.
8. A teenage mother is at greater risk for pregnancy complications.
9. More than 9 million teenagers become infected with a sexually transmitted disease each year.
10. Babies born to teen mothers are more likely to die in their first year of life than those born to older
11. Teen mothers are more likely to have low birth weight babies.
12. Only 40% of teenagers who have children go onto graduate high school.
13. Teenage mothers are more likely to live in poverty and 75% of unwed mothers will be on welfare.
14. Children born to teenage mothers are 50% more likely to repeat a grade in school.
B. Teenage pregnancy contributing factors
1. the loosening of family and religious ties.
2. the desperate attempt to hold onto a boyfriend.
3. increased exploitation of sex by the media.
4. lack of communication between a boy and a girl.
5. the boy thinking “its her responsibility”.
6. a crave to give and receive attention.
7. lack of sexual information.
8. peer pressure.
9. more acceptance of pre-marital sexual intercourse.
10. embarrassment about purchasing or using contraceptive devices
C. Premarital Sex
1. premarital sex is risk-taking.
2. how we feel does not change the consequences.
3. emotional consequences – GUILT, ANXIETY, and MISTRUST.
4. physical consequences – PREGNANCY and SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES.
TO ABSTAIN FROM SEXUAL ACTIVITY UNTIL YOU ARE MARRIED IS
A DECISION THAT REFLECTS ON THE
MATURITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL.
Sexually transmitted diseases ( STD )
The name applies to those diseases that are spread through sexual intercourse.
Incidences of STDs are sky-rocketing in Louisiana and the US.
These diseases cannot be caught from toilet seats and cannot be cured without medical intervention.
In most diseases no symptoms may be shown by the infected partner.
Many of these diseases have inadequate or no therapy.
Being infected with one STD increases the risk of another infection
Long term complications include infertility, premature onset of labor, infant death and illness
Long term consequences of STDs are more serious for women than men.
Some such as HIV and hepatitis may be fatal to both sexes.
The greatest increase in STD infection is occurring in young teenagers.
There are over 25 agents that transmit STDs.
Types of STDs
Chlamydia - 4 million cases each year. 75% of women and 25% of men show no symptoms.
Gonorrhea – the most commonly reported communicable disease. Causes a pus-like discharge from the
urethra or vagina. There are 290 cases per 100,000 population each year.
Syphilis – 20 cases / 100,00/year. Chancres form and the disease may attack and destroy any organ in
Chancroid – causes painful ulcers on the genitals.
Gardnerella – causes vaginal discharge and urethritis in males.
Herpes Simplex II – infects at least 30 million Americans and causes small painful blisters.
Herpes Simplex I – produces lesions on the genitals as the result of oral sex. All humans are infected
with HSV- I in their mouths.
Hepatitis B – infects about 2 million Americans. It is one of the most serious STDs.
Hepatitis C – 7 million Americans are carriers. The number one cause of liver cancer and cirrhosis.
HPV – causes 13 different diseases from genital warts to cervical, vulva, vaginal, and penile cancer.
HIV I & II infects approximately 1% of all Americans. The virus causes AIDS and is ultimately fatal.
There is no cure at this time. AIDS may be transmitted in utero to infants from their mother.
Ways to prevent AIDS
Abstain from sex
Do not use intravenous drugs. Those who do should not share needles or syringes. Tattoo needles should
never be shared.
There is no such thing as safe sex. Condoms can reduce the risk of acquiring the HIV virus that causes
National AIDS Hotline – 1-800-342-AIDS
Molluscum – produces pustules on the genitalia.
Trichomonas – causes severe vaginitis, urethritis, and prostatitis. Half of women show no symptoms.
Candida ( yeast infection )
Lice – Crab lice cling to pubic hairs and lay eggs attached to the hairs. Larva and adults feed on
Abstinence is the decision not to have sexual intercourse. It is a sure way to prevent pregnancy. Many
teens realize that this choice has several advantages, including no worries about contraception or pregnancy
and no risk of sexually transmissible diseases