Mr. Pierce

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Third Marking Period Notes

I. President John Tyler:
-Tenth President: 1841-1845
-Vice President: None
-Called the "Accidental President" or "His Accidency"
-Establishes the Right of Presidential Succession when William Henry 
Harrison dies after just 4 weeks as President.

A. President Without a Party:
-Clay and other Whig Members hoped to push through a new Bank Charter, which 
would reestablish the National Bank.
-Tyler, a former Democrat, vetoed the bill, and then vetoed a second Fiscal 
Corporation Bill.
-Whig members then voted to expell Tyler from their party, and his entire 
Cabinet resigned in disgust.
-Tyler does allow for a protective tariff to be passed to create revenue for 
the nation which upsets Democrats.
-Tyler asks to be readmitted into the Democratic Party, but they refuse, and 
so Tyler is left without the support of either political party.

B. Diplomacy with England:
-With the Depression of 1837, America's finances were in ruin.
-British Banks were lending money to the United States, though many of the 
States that borrowed money were defaulting.
-Money lenders in England felt that they were being robbed by the United 
States, which strained foreign relations.
-Along the U.S./Canadian border the U.S. steamer "Caroline", was attacked by 
the British, and was destroyed.

C. The Webster-Ashburton Treaty:
-Signed in 1842
-Lord Ashburton (England), Daniel Webster (Sect. of State)
-Agree to a compromise of the Maine/Canadian Border.  The British give the 
United States 6,500 sq.miles of land that is the border of Minnesota, where 
valuable iron ore is located.

D. The Election of 1844:
-The leading issue of the Presidential Election of 1844
-Democrat James K. Polk was for the annexation of Texas, Henry Clay, who 
represented the Whigs, was against it.
-Southerners were for the annexation of the land because it would increase 
the number of slave states.  Northern states were opposed.
-President Tyler in his last days in office, worked on Texas Annexation, 
making Texas a state in 1845, but Mexico refused to give up its claim to the 

II. President James K. Polk:
-Eleventh President: 1845-1849
-Vice President: George Dallas
-"Young Hickory"
-Known for bringing in the territory to the United States which completed 
control of North America (CA, WA, OR, ID, UT, NV, CO, NM, AZ, TX)
-Agreed to not run for a second term if all of his goals were accomplished 
in first term of office.

A. Polk's Presidency:
-Was not a strong delegater of authority
-Ran on a platform of four goals he wanted accomplished in one term of office
1. Lower the Tariff of 1842 to 25% (The Walker Tariff of 1846)
2. Restore the Independent Treasury Department
3. Bring California and Texas into the Union
4. Bring the Oregon Territory into the Union

B. The Oregon Fever:
-The Oregon Territory had been shared by Great Britain and the United States 
for the past ten years, since the signing of an agreement by President 
Monroe and the British Government.
-The Oregon Territory bordered California and spread to the tip of the 
Alaskan frontier, along the 54, 40' line.
-The United States lay claim to the territory because they could populate 
the land in greater numbers (with missionaries like the Whitmans's, and 
settlers, like the Seager Family), and quicker, than Great Britain.
-Pioneers made their way to the Oregon Territory via the Oregon Trail.
-When the United States wanted to divide the land along the 49', the British 
refused, believing the Columbia River to be a more appropriate border.
-Many in the United States, claimed "54,40' or Fight" demanding that the 
United States be awarded the entire Oregon Territory.
-Great Britain agrees to settle the border of the Oregon Territory with the 
United States along the 49th parallel.

C. The California Question:
-Polk wanted to purchase the California Territory from Mexico.
-The Mexican Government refused to sell the land, especially after the 
annexation of Texas by the United States.
-Mexico refused to believe that Texas was now apart of the United States, 
and southern expansionists in Texas wanted to take even more land from 
-To settle the land dispute and purchase the land legally, Polk sent John 
Slidell to Mexico City, offering $25 million for the land.
-Mexico refuses to take the money.

D. An Unconstitutional War?:
-On January 13, 1846 U.S. troops, under the Command of General Zachary 
Taylor, march to the Rio Grande, near Mexican soldiers.
-The Rio Grande was disputed territory still owned by Mexico, and therefore 
Taylor and his men had "invaded" Mexico.
-On April 25th, 1846 Mexican soldiers fired upon American troops, killing 16
-Polk went to Congress demanding a declaration of war, and was granted the 
right with a coalition of Democrats and Whigs.
-Many viewed Polk's invasion as unconstitutional because Polk had provoked 
the Mexican's into a fight.
-Both the United States and Mexico were "itching" for a fight, with Mexico 
assuming that arguments with Great Britain over the Oregon Territory might 
cause the United States to sue for peace.

E. The Mastering of Mexico:
-In 1846 Gen. Stephen W. Kearny captures Santa Fe, New Mexico
-In 1846 John C. Fremont collaberates with the United States Navy and his 
own armed forces to overthrow the Mexican Government in California.
-*Fremont's Rebellion sparks the creation of the Republic of California.
-The U.S. Army, under the command of General Zachary Taylor, "Old Rough & 
Ready" defeats a force of 20,000 Mexicans with his band of 5,000 troops at 
the Battle of Buena Vista.
-General Winfield Scott, "Old Fuss & Feathers" was successful in his 
invasion of Mexico City in September, 1847.

F. Peace with Mexico:
-Polk was determined to claim California and sent Nicholas P. Trist to 
Mexico to work out a peace agreement with Santa Anna.
-The agreement was the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 
-America claimed: Texas, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, 
-The United States had to pay the Mexican Government $15 million, and an 
additional $3,250,000 to the Mexican people for damages.

G. Profit & Loss in Mexico:
-As a result of the war, the United States increased by a third
-The war proved to be good training for men like Robert E. Lee and Ulysses 
S. Grant, while also bolstering the Marine Corps, Army, and Navy.
-The Mexican American War caused a great riff between the United States and 
Latin American countries.
-Anti Slave and Pro Slave sides began to quarrel, with men like David Wilmot 
of Pennsylvania arguing for the abolishment of slavery.
-*Wilmot's Proviso introduced his Bill to the House which stipulated that 
slavery should never exist in any of the territory won from Mexico.
-Southerners were highly opposed to this, because much of the land won from 
Mexico was below the Missouri Compromise line.
-The Proviso was supported along sectional lines, with Northern States in 
support, and Southern States opposed.

H. The Election of 1848:
-The Presidential Election of 1848 was a divided affair, with three 
political parties involved.
-The Whig Party: Zachary Taylor; "Old Rough N' Ready"
-The Democratic Party: Lewis Cass
-The Free Soil Party: Martin Van Buren
-The Key issues facing the candidates were:
i. Should slavery be allowed in territory won in the Mexican Cession?
ii.Who should allow slavery into the new territories? The government or the 
-Lewis Cass supported the policy of Popular Sovereignty, where the people of 
the new territories would decide on whether to be slave or free.
-The Whigs ran their campaign on Taylor's War record, though his ownership 
of slaves upset many Northern Whigs.
-Known as "Conscience Whigs" they joined with Northern Democrats to form the 
Free Soil Party.
-The Free Soil Party stood for supporting the Wilmot Proviso, preventing 
slavery in the territories, and allowing white workers to rise out of wage-
earning dependence that would limit social mobility.
-"Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men" was the rallying cry of 
the Free Soil Party.
-Van Buren's Free Soil Party wins enough votes to cost Cass the election and 
Taylor becomes the nation's Twelfth President.

III. President Zachary Taylor:
-Twelfth President: 1849-1850
-Vice President: Millard Fillmore
-"Old Rough and Ready"
-Known for supporting California as a Free State, opposing the Compromise of 
1850, and dying in office under suspicious circumstances.

A. The California Gold Rush:
-In 1848 Gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill, outside of Sacremento 
California, on the American River.
-Word spread across the Continent, via the Pony Express and Wagon Trains.
-Eventually word spread to Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and 
Australia, where men from around the world, struck with "Gold Fever", came 
to California in hopes of getting rich quickly.
-These men were called "49ers," because they came to CA in 1849.
-Few people hit "the motherload" in the gold fields, but many more made 
money selling supplies to the miners, or "claim jumping" which was illegal 
mining on someone else's property.
-So many people from around the world were moving into California, that 
lawlessness soon prevailed, causing many to demand that California apply for 
-The state constitution excluded slavery, which if allowed, would prevent 
the Southern Congressional Representatives from blocking their admission 
into the Union.
-Ironically, President Taylor, himself a slave holder, welcomed California 
and encouraged its Free State status.

B. The Compromise of 1850:
-Southerners in Congress were greatly opposed to California being allowed to 
enter the Union as a Free State, because it would upset the balance between 
free and slave states.
-The "immortal trio" of Calhoun, Clay, and Webster made their last 
appearance before the Congress to debate the issues facing the country.
-Clay developed the Compromise of 1850:
Northern Concessions:                    Southern Concessions:
California admitted as a Free State      Texas admitted as a Slave State    
                                         Land of Mexican Cession opened up  
                                         to popular sovereignty in the
                                         territories of New Mexico and Utah

Disputed Territory between NM & TX       TX gets $10million from the Fed. 
Gov.to be given to NM.                   as compensation for lost land.

Slave Trade abolished in Washington D.C. Slavery not abolished in Washington

                                         Stricter Fugitive Slave Law

-John C. Calhoun, to sick to speak, had a letter written which; opposed the 
compromise, rejected limiting slavery, created a stricter slave law, have 
two Presidents one from the North and South with veto power, and restore the 
political balance between North and South.

-Webster defended Clay's work for over three hours in his "Seventh of March" 
speech, stating "Let us not be pygmies in a case that calls for men."

-William H. Seward of NY believed that the country should appeal to 
a "higher law", stating that allowing slavery into the new territories 
was "against God's Moral law and against man's mundane law."

-Southern "fire eaters" threatened secession from the Union if the 
Compromise was not completed which would allow for popular sovereignty and 
stricter slave law enforcement.

-President Taylor opposed the Compromise of 1850, but died before vetoing 
the Bill.
-Taylor's death is mysterious and blamed on his diet of iced cherries and 
sour milk. (Many believe his wife poisoned him with Arsenic)
-Taylor's Vice President Millard Fillmore becomes President.

IV. President Millard Fillmore:
-Thirteenth President: 1850-1853
-No Vice President
-Supported the Compromise of 1850
-Fillmore signed the Compromise of 1850 into law, believing it was in the 
best interest of the nation.

A. The Fugitive Slave Law:
-Originally if a slave escaped bondage, as long as they made their way past 
the Mason-Dixon line (The border of PA&MD) they were free.
-Known as the "Bloodhound Bill", the law was to prevent more than a 1,000 
slaves from running away each year.
-The law would not prevent any escaped slave from living freely in the 
northern territory.
-Escaped slaves would now have to flee to Canada for safety.
-Slave Bounty Hunters would roam the North looking for slaves that 
would "fit descriptions" of escaped slaves.
-Upon capturing the fugitives, slave catchers would bring them before a 
judge who would determine the freedom of the captive.
-If the judge found in favor of the captive he would receive $5.00.  If the 
judge found in favor of the slave catcher, he would receive $10.00.
-Such laws prompted Abolitionists to up their participation in the 
Underground Railroad, a collection of safehouses and properties where 
escaped slaves could find shelter while on their way to Canada.
-Called "passengers" the slaves were led by "conductors" who led them to 
-The most famous conductor was Harriet Tubman, a former slave who suffered 
from Narcolepsy and seizures

B. The Election of 1852:
-The Whig Party put forth Gen. Winfield Scott as their candidate.
-The Democrats put forth Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire.
-Pierce was a compromise candidate between Northern and Southern Democrats 
because he had no political enemies and was a prosouthern northerner.
-The Whig Party was hopelessly split on its endorcement of Scott, that the 
Election of 1852 proved to be the end of the political party.
-Pierce wins the Election of 1852 in a landslide.

V. President Franklin Pierce:
-Fourteenth President: 1853-1857
-Vice President: William King, 1853
(King went to Cuba after being struck with tuberculosis. While in Cuba he 
won the Vice Presidency, and even took the oath of office there. King died 
in April, having never gone back to the States.)
-"The Young Hickory of the Granite State"
-Considered the "Best Looking President" and 41st Worst President in History.

A. American Expansion:
-Pierce believed in helping the Southern Cause of expanding their 
territorial gains.
-Included in his cabinet were many southerners, including his Secretary of 
War; Jefferson Davis.
-Many southerners looked to expand south in Central America and the 
Caribbean, creating slavocracies, or wealthy plantations to boost the 
South's economy.

-Nicaragua was seen as important to the United States for two reasons; 
William Walker's Rebellion, and a transoceanic canal.

i. Walker's Rebellion:
-William Walker led a revolt in Nicaragua with a private Army to create 
slave state.
-Central American nations launched a joint assault against him, capturing 
Walker and killing him in 1860.

ii.The Transoceanic Canal:
-Many people were plagued with having to travel around the tip of South 
America to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic (vice versa)
-The United States tried to build a canal through Nicaragua, but were 
thwarted by the British.
-With possible war looming, the United States and Britain sign the Clayton-
Bulwer Treaty; neither country may fortify or secure exclusive control over 
any future isthmian waterway.

-With control of the West Coast, the United States looked to open trade with 
-The Japanese and Japan had been isolated from trade with the West for 200 
-In 1854 Commodore Matthew C. Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay, and presented an 
ultimatum to the Japanese Government, either open their ports to trade or 
face physical altercations.
-Trade was opened between the two nations.

-Southerners had always looked to Cuba, a Spanish Controled Island, as an 
excellent location for Sugar and Coffee Plantations.
-Spain had refused to sell the Island during Polk's Presidency and again 
refused under Pierce, which caused many in the South to want war with Spain.
-Pierce sent his Secretary of State William Marcy to Ostend, Belgium to meet 
with U.S. Ambassadors from England, France, and Spain, and to prepare an 
offer of $120 million for Cuba.
-It was believed that if Spain refused the offer, the security of the United 
States would be in jeopardy and would justify going to War for the island.
-Known as the Ostend Manifesto, the deal upset many northerners who believed 
Pierce was a pawn of the south's, denying him any credibility.

The Gadsden Purchase:
-Transportation West was seen as the new national goal, as railroad 
developers in both the North and South began making plans for a possible 
transcontinental railroad.
-The way to re-supply the Pacific was to build a railroad that would stretch 
from the middle of the United States to California.
-The most desired spot was in southern California, stretching across Arizona 
and New Mexico.
-James Gadsden, a southern railroad man, was sent to Mexico to negotiate a 
deal which would provide land to Arizona and New Mexico.
-The Gadsden Purchase went for $10 million 

B. The Kansas-Nebraska Act:
-Created by Sen. Stephen A. Douglas of IL.
-Known as the "Little Giant", Douglas believed in the policy of Popular 
Sovereignty created by Lewis Cass.
-Douglas proposed that the Nebraska territory be split into two regions; 
Nebraska and Kansas.
-Support for the Kansas-Nebraska Act would nullify the Missouri Compromise 
Line of 1820 and make for the establishment of popular sovereignty in the 
new territories.
-Many northerners felt betrayed by Douglas's actions, but the Bill was 
signed into Law by President Pierce.
-Abolitionists and Pro-Slavery Southerners would now flood the territory 
with their supporters in hopes of bringing about greater numbers to 
prevent/allow slavery.

C. Bleeding Kansas:
-The issue of slavery in Kansas was to be determined through Popular 
-Abolitionists from New England and the North moved into the territory, 
along with Southerners and Pro-Slave supporters from Missouri and the South.
-Abolitionists were called "Free Soilers", while southerners and Missourians 
were called, "Border Ruffians" because they prevented Abolitionists from 
entering Kansas through brute intimidation.
-Abolitionists established their Free Soil Capital in Lawrence, KS.
-Pro-slave supporters established their capital in Lecompton, KS.
-Both sides were armed and aided by money from the North and South.
-In the Senate, Sen. David Atchison (MO) stated that the South needed to win 
in Kansas so that slavery could be spread to the Pacific.
-Northerners supported by Sen. William H. Seward (NY) believed that they had 
to win in Kansas to prevent slavery from spreading.
-When Congress called for an election to determine the sovereignty of the 
territory, "Border Ruffians" led by Atchison stormed into Lawrence, KS, 
intimidating voters and burning down the Free Soil Capital.
-Pro-slave supporters then passed the Lecompton Constitution which allowed 
for slavery to be legalized in KS, and a crime to talk out against slavery.
-Violence breaks out in KS as Abolitionists and Pro-slave supporters begin 
shooting each other.  Kansas is awash in blood, hence, Bleeding Kansas.
The fighting will not end until the Civil War is ended (1856-1865)

D. John Brown at Pottawatomie Creek:
-John Brown was a radical abolitionist who believed that the only way to rid 
the world of slavery was through violence.
-Mascarading as a preacher, Brown brought in many "Beecher Bibles" (Rifles) 
into KS to fight against the Border Ruffians.
-At Pottawatomie Creek on May 24, 1856 he and his sons hacked to death slave 
owners in their homes.
-When word of the massacre reached Lecompton, Brown and his sons fled from 

E.  The Caning of Charles Sumner:
-Charles Sumner was a Senator from MA, who was a staunch supporter of the 
Abolitionist movement in KS.
-Sumner had riled by the "crimes against Kansas" and accused pro-slave 
supporters such as Sen. Andrew P. Butler of SC of "choosing to bed a 
mistress, the harlot slavery."
-Congressman Preston Brooks of SC approached Sumner about his remarks, 
demanding an apology to Butler, who was his cousin.  Sumner refused.
-Brooks took his cane and began to savagely beat Sumner unconscious, while 
the other Southern Senators yelled "Hit Him Again! Hit Him Again!"
-Northerners were appalled by the actions of Brooks, while southerners sent 
Brooks canes in the mail with the inscription, "Hit Him Again!" on them.

F. The Election of 1856:
-James Buchanan was chosen to represent the Democratic Party because he had 
been out of the country as a minister to England during the Pierce 
-John C. Fremont was chosen to represent the Republican Party which had been 
formed by Concious Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free Soil supporters in 
-Millard Fillmore represented the American Party which was made up of 
members of the "Know Nothing Party" who were anti-Foreigner (Irish & German).
-Buchanan won the 1856 election

VI. President James Buchanan:
-Fifteenth President: 1857-1861
-Vice President: John C. Breckinridge
-Only President never to marry
-Considered by Historians as the Worst President Ever because he did nothing 
to prevent the Civil War.

A. *Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857):
-Dred Scott had lived with his "master" Mr. Sanford above the 36,30' line 
for over 14 years.
-When Mr. Sanford died, his estate, including Dred Scott, was left to his 
children in Maryland.
-Dred Scott was encouraged by Abolitionist supporters to sue for his freedom.
-The Sanford family countersued, not knowing that the person they were suing 
was their property.
-The lower courts found in favor of the Sanford Family, while the Court of 
Appeals ruled in Scott's favor.
-The Supreme Court ruled:
1. That slaves are not persons, they are property. (Influences XIII 
2. Slaves are not citizens and therefore have no constitutional rights, 
including the right to sue. (Influences the XIV Amendment)
3. The Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional, and therefore Slavery could 
be extended to the rest of the uninhabited territories of the United States.
-Chief Justice Roger B. Taney stated: "[Black Men] have no rights that a 
white man is bound to respect."

B. The Financial Crash of 1857:
-The Great Financial Crash of 1857 was caused by a number of factors:
1. The influx of California Gold which inflated the value of currency.
2. The over production of grain which deflated the value and price of grain.
3. Rampant land and railroad speculation and borrowing.
-The North was most greatly effected because their cash crop was grain, and 
90% of the railroads were in the North.
-The South was effected the least because of the foreign demand for Southern 
Cotton.  This inflates the self-worth of the South, and will be a main 
reason why they feel they will be successful when they secede from the 
-Many Northerners demand higher tariff rates, which the Southern states had 
been able to get lowered to 20%.
-The Panic of 1857 influences the platform for the Republican Party in 1860; 
1. Free Land for those who want to own their own farms
2. Tariff protections for Northern businesses

C. Abraham Lincoln:
-Born in 1809 in Kentucky
-After the death of his mother, his father remarried and moved with the 
family to Illinois.
-A self-educated man, he taught himself to read and write by learning the 
Bible, which explains why Lincoln would often paraphrase the Bible in his 
-Standing over 6'4, he had a high squeeky voice, and was known for rough 
course humor.
-Lincoln worked in a general store, on a riverboat, was a professional 
wrestler, farmer, and finally became a self-educated lawyer.
-He married a woman of high social standing,a slave owning family, Ms. Mary 
Todd of Kentucky, who suffered from Bi-Polar disorder.
-He had four sons; Robert, Edward, William, Thomas
-Lincoln suffered from headaches, and bouts of depression.  He was often 
morose and talked of his own death.
-A failed soldier in the "Black Hawk War" in the Illinois Militia, Lincoln 
was also a one term Congressman from Illinois.
-Lincoln joined the Republican Party in 1856, running for the Senate against 
Stephen A. Douglas.

D. Lincoln v. Douglas Debates:
-Douglas was up for re-election for his Senate seat in 1858
-Lincoln represented the Republican Party
-Throughout the debate Lincoln would debate with Douglas over the issue of 
Slavery and the Dred Scott decision.
-Lincoln challenged Douglas on whether or not he agreed with the Court's 
1. If Douglas stated that he supported popular sovereignty then he would 
state that he did not agree with the Court and Government regulating slavery
2. If Douglas stated that he supported the Court and Government's right to 
regulate slavery, then he denounced his own policy of popular sovereignty.
-To answer Lincoln's question, Douglas creates the Freeport Doctrine.
-The Doctrine stated that if the people really wanted slavery in the 
territories they would enforce the Courts' ruling.  If they did not want 
slavery in the territories, they would not enforce the Courts' ruling.
-Douglas wins re-election, but Lincoln is found to be a gifted orator and 
develops the persona of "Honest Abe".

E. John Brown's Raid:
-October of 1859
-John Brown, his sons, and some escaped slaves, hope to start a slave revolt 
throughout the South.
-Brown and his men invade the Federal Arsenal (place to keep guns) in 
Harpers Ferry, VA. (currently W.VA)
-Failing to raise enough supporters for his rebellion, Brown and his men are 
forced to hold up in the local firehouse, while angry towns people begin 
shooting at them.
-The Marines are called in, led by Col. Robert E. Lee, attacking the fire 
house and capturing Brown.
-Quickly tried for Treason, Brown was found guilty and sentenced to death by 
-On the day of his execution Brown handed his executioner a letter stating 
why he had invaded, stating that he believed the slavery would only be ended 
through the spilling of blood.
-In the South, Brown is viewed as a radical abolitionist and a criminal.
-In the North, Brown is viewed as a martyr dying for the cause of freedom.

F. The Election of 1860:
-The election of 1860 had four party nominees competing against each other.
1. The Republican Nominee was Abraham Lincoln
-Lincoln was viewed as the stronger nominee over William H. Seward
-The Republican Party Platform; No extension of slavery, protective tariffs, 
no abridgment of rights, a Pacific Railroad, Government funded internal 
improvements of roads out West, free homesteads from the public domain.
-Republicans knew that to win the election they would have to win all of the 
Northern States and California

2. The Democratic Party had two nominees; Stephen A. Douglas for the 
Northern Democrats, and Vice President John C. Breckinridge for the Southern 
-Southern Democrats were opposed to Douglas for his stance on the Freeport 
-Breckinridge favored extending slavery into the territories, and annexing 

3. The Constitutional Union Party Nominee was John Bell
-Believed in keeping the status quo in the nation and maintaining the 
balance of the compromises.
-"The Union, Constitution, and Enforcement of the Laws"
-Southern Democrats vowed that if Lincoln won the election they would secede 
from the Union.
-Lincoln won the election with 180 Electoral votes, and only 39% of the 
popular vote.

G. The Secessionist Exodus:
-Four days after Lincoln was elected President South Carolina called for a 
special State Session to vote to secede from the Union
-In December of 1860 South Carolina seceeds from the Union.
-Six weeks later; Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, & Texas 
break away.
-In 1861 four other states join; Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and 
-11 states in total form the New Confederate States of America.
-The President of the Confederacy was Jefferson Davis

H. Buchanan the Lame Duck:
-Facing the separation in the country, President Buchanan refused to do 
anything to stop the conflict.
-Buchanan did not believe the South had the right to break away, but also 
believed that the Constitution did not give him the right to send in the 
Army to prevent secession.
-Buchanan did not have a strong enough army to put down the insurrection, 
with much of it out in the West.
-Buchanan's ineptitude has led him to be named the Worst President in 

I. The Crittenden Compromise:
-In a last ditch effort to save the Union, Senator James Henry Crittenden of 
KY, proposed a compromise between the North and South.
1. Return the Missouri Compromise line to the 36, 30', with all land south 
of that line guaranteed the right to slavery
2. New territories would decide if they wanted to be slave or free
-Men like Stephen A. Douglas believed that the Compromise would have worked, 
but the South believed that they could do better on their own by relying 
on "King Cotton".

VII. The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln
-Sixteenth President 1861-1865
-Vice President: Hannibal Hamlin 1861-1865
                 Andrew Johnson 1865
-Known as "Honest Abe", "The Illinois Rail Splitter", the tallest President, 
kept the nation united during the its most turbulent time.  Considered the 
Greatest President.

A.  Causes of the Civil War:
1. South breaking away from the Union through secession.
2. Regional/Sectional differences over the legality, morality, and politics 
of slavery.
3. Violence sparked by the Kansas-Nebraska Act and "Bleeding Kansas".
4. The outcome of the Dred Scott decision canceling the Missouri Compromise.
5. John Brown's failed raid on Harpers Ferry, VA.
6. Lincoln's election to the Presidency.
7. The Confederate assault on Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC.

B.  Effects of the Civil War:
1. Slavery outlawed in the United States, former slaves given citizenship 
and the right to vote.
2. Southern States rebuild during the era of Reconstruction, reinforcing 
their own values and creates segregation laws.
3. First Civil Rights laws passed.

C. Advantages and Disadvantages of North & South in the Civil War:
i. Economics:
The North: 
-Had a larger population; 22 million people
-90% of all industrial factories were in the North and East
-These factories made; Shoes, clothing, iron, firearms, gun powder
-The North could distribute food and supplies quickly because over 90% of 
all railroads were in the North and East.
-The North also had a larger influx of immigrants from Ireland and Germany
-The North had the stronger of the two economies

The South:
-The South had a smaller population; 9 million people, of which more than 
30% were slaves who were not allowed to fight or be armed.
-The South had only 10% of all factories
-The South does begin to build their own factories, but believes that it 
will be aided through the selling of their cotton to European markets, or 
will be aided by either France or England.
-The South had only 10% of the nation's railroads, which makes 
transportation of resources slow and nearly impossible.

ii. The Military:
-The North had very few accomplished or experienced generals or military 
-The North had an inexperienced Army
-The North did have a Navy
-The North had to fight an offensive war, they had to win the war

-The South had very accomplished and experienced generals (Robert E. Lee, 
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, JEB Stuart etc...)
-The South had experienced and a well organized army
-The South did not have a navy
-The South did not have to fight an offensive war, they had to fight the war 
to a draw to gain European recognition.

C. The Confederate Attack on Fort Sumter:
-After South Carolina had voted for secession, Union troops vacated their 
posts on the mainland and moved to Fort Sumter which stood at the mouth of 
Charleston Harbor, the busiest port in the South.
-Whomever controlled the Fort would control Charleston Harbor.
-Lincoln was faced with two options:
1. Surrender the Fort without a fight, which would violate his 
duty to serve, protect, and defend the Constitution.
2. Re-supply the Fort with reinforcements, which would antagonize the 
Secessionists and further divide the North from the South.

-Lincoln decides to send provisions to the Fort (not men), which the South 
sees as a direct attempt to reinforce the Fort.

-April 12th, 1861 the Confederate troops in Charleston open fire on Ft. 
-After 34 hours the Fort is surrendered, with the only casualty being a 
Confederate Horse.
-Northerners cannot believe it, and they reply by calling for an armed 
response against the people who would assault the Federal Government and the 
flag of the United States.
-On April 15th, 1861 President Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers to fight 
in the war.
-By April 19th, General Winfield Scott and President Lincoln decide on the 
Anaconda Plan, which is a Union Blockade of all Southern Ports, to put 
the "squeeze" on Southern trade, namely King Cotton.
-With the ports now closed, the South will have a tough time exporting 
cotton, and importing valuable supplies from Europe.

D. Hanging on to the Border States:
-The Border States (those between the North and South) were: Missouri, 
Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia (which broke away from 
Virginia in May of 1861, when Virginia seceded from the Union)
-The Confederacy needed these states because they would have doubled the 
available fighting population of the Confederacy, and its manufacturing 
-Lincoln and the Union needed to hold on to these states to deny the 
Confederacy these strategic victories.
-Whoever controlled the Border State of Kentucky would also control the Ohio 
River, which led deeply into the southern states where there were large 
supplies of gun powder, iron, grain etc...
-To hold onto Maryland, Lincoln declared Martial Law because he said that if 
Maryland would turn to the Confederacy, threatening the safety of 
-Federal Troops were also sent in to West Virginia and Missouri.
-To avoid the slave issue, Lincoln publicly stated that the purpose for this 
armed conflict was to "Preserve the Union, not end slavery."
-In the West, many of the displaced Native tribes in what is now Oklahoma, 
decided that they would fight on the side of the Confederacy, where they 
would be treated as equal members in government rather than as criminals.

E. The Effects of the Anaconda Plan:
-The British had over-inflated Cotton's worth.
-From 1857-1860 British Merchants had been storing Southern Cotton, so 
was not in as high demand.
-With the Union's blockade of southern ports, a "cotton famine" emerged in 
the South.
-A large supply of cotton drove the price down, along with the flooding of 
the cotton market by Egyptian and Indian Cotton, which further drove the 
price down.
-With the blockade in place southern engineers and leaders begin to design 
blockade runners (fast moving ships to "break the blockade")
-By mid-1862 the Southern Economy is beginning to show weaknesses.

F.  Blockade Running & The Alabama:
-To overcome the British Blockade, the South hired private ship captains to 
be Blockade Runners (Fast moving clipper ships that would break through the 
-The Alabama was the most infamous of the blockade runners, which was manned 
by British sailors, though under the command of Confederate Officers.
-Using Britain as its base, the Alabama was a successful blockade runner 
until 1864 when it was finally sunk off the coast of France.
-Blockade runners were the life blood of the Southern Economy while the 
Anaconda plan was in use by the Union.

G.  British involvement in the Civil War:
-The Confederate Government was looking for international support, namely 
from Britain, to whom they exported cotton.
-The first major diplomatic crisis was known as the "Trent Affair".
-The HMS Trent was boarded by Union Blockade Ships and forced the arrest of 
two Confederate Diplomats who were on their way to England.
-The British Government demanded that the diplomats be released, since they 
were traveling under the protection of the British Government.
-Lincoln now faced a dilemma; either releases the diplomats and allows them 
to travel to England to form an alliance with the British, or risk immediate 
war with Great Britain.
-Lincoln releases the two diplomats.
-British ship builders were also working on designing ships for the 
Confederacy, namely the "Laird rams"; two heavily armed war ships with 
battering rams on them that could run through the Union blockade.
-With such a weapon the South would have been able to destroy Union ships 
and successfully invade Union port cities.
-The British government decides not to get involved in selling the ships to 
the Confederacy, and instead keeps the ships for the British Navy.
-Confederate soldiers, who had made bases in Canada, were committing raids 
into Vermont, robbing banks and stealing supplies.  

H. France involved in Mexico:
-Because of the Civil War, France, under the leadership of Emperor Napoleon 
III, felt that it could regain a foothold in North America.
-Napoleon III installed a dictator in Mexico, Archduke Maxmilian.
-As the war progresses and it appears that the Union will win, Napoleon III 
abandons aide to Maxmilian in 1865.
-Mexican forces capture and kill Maxmilian on May 5th, and to Mexicans 
celebrate Cinco de Mayo each year.

I. Limitations on Wartime Liberties:
-When the war broke out Lincoln took the opportunity to expand the powers of 
a wartime President.
-Congress was not in session when the war began, so Lincoln took the 
opportunity to draw in power.
1. Established the blockade around the Eastern Seaboard and the Gulf of 
Mexico, blocking southern ports.
2. Called up 75,000 Army volunteers 
3. Increased the spending budget of the Army
4. Suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus which allowed him to have enemies of 
the state (people who would criticize the government in print, or verbally, 
could be thrown in jail without trial)
5. Suspended the Civil Rights of citizens living in Maryland, a border state 
that he worried would join the Confederacy.
-When the Chief Justice Roger B. Taney objected to Lincoln's policies, 
Lincoln threatened to have the Chief Justice arrested.

J. Comparing and Contrasting Lincoln and Davis:
-Both were born in Kentucky
-Both men were professional politicians with Lincoln being a one term 
Congressman from Illinois, and Davis been a Senator from Mississippi and 
Sect. of War under President Pierce
-Both men had internal political problems in their government;
1. Had to deal with northern Democrats and southern sympathizers.
2. Had to deal with rivals in his own political party who believed he was a 
poor choice as President (ex. William H. Seward)
3. Lincoln would use anecdotes and jokes to get his point across, or to 
diffuse a situation.
4. Lincoln worked with the benefit of a long established government
5. Lincoln had an excellent grasp of public opinion, and would steer his 
objectives towards what the public wanted.

1. Had to deal with forming a new government
2. Had to rely on a constitution that allowed states within his own country 
of seceding if they so chose to do.
3. Was very tense, stubborn, and humorless, which led to his being 
overworked, and micro-managing the Confederate Government and Army.
4. Did not have an excellent grasp of public opinion

K. Volunteers and Draftees; North & South:
The North:
-At the beginning of the war both sides were manned by volunteers.
-Each state was assigned a quota by which they were expected to meet by 
filling the army with their soldiers.
-In 1863 volunteer numbers were beginning to dwindle and Congress passed the 
Federal Conscription Law (The Draft)
-The wealthy avoided fighting by paying $300.00 for a "substitute" to go in 
their place.
-Substitutes were usually the poor or immigrants, and were referred to 
as "Three-Hundred-Dollar Men".
-Democratic Strongholds like New York City were greatly affected, with Irish 
Immigrants who were against the wealthy and abolition, leading the way.
-Riots broke out in New York City with Union troops being called in and 
opening fire on the mobs.

The South:
-The Southern Army was originally a volunteer Army, but as the War 
men between the ages of 17-50 were called into service.
-Slave owners or overseers of 20 slaves or more were exempt from serving.
-The wealthy, like in the North, could also hire substitutes.

L. Economic Stresses of the War:
The North:
-To pay for the war the Department of the Treasury issued green paper money 
called, "greenbacks", which was backed by the nation's credit/gold supply.
-To support paper currency, Congress passed the National Banking Act which 
provided a standard paper currency throughout the Union.
-Congress issued the sale of War Bonds which could be cashed in for a higher 
monetary value after the war.
-Congress also raised money for the war by passing the Morrill Tariff Act; 
which increased duties on goods like tobacco and alcohol.
-The North benefited from wartime prosperity with new factories, soaring 
prices, and a rising number of millionaires.
-Businesses would use machines (the sewing machine, mechanical reaper, 
petroleum (oil) wells, iron/coal mines) and expanded labor forces to reap 
profits from the war.
-Such supporters of business were called "War Profiteers"
-Quite often businesses would make the uniforms, shoes, and supplies as 
cheaply as possible, while keeping the bulk of the profit from the 
-To help in the war effort Northern Women began working in factories, by the 
wars end, 1:3 workers in the factories were women.
-Women like Clara Barton formed the Red Cross, a medical group to aide 
troops and the wounded on both sides of the fighting.
-Dorothea Dix and Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell formed the United States Sanitary 
Commission, a government agency responsible for advising the military on 
public health issues and addressing sanitary problems.
-This commission put thousands of nurses into the field hospitals to help 
overburdened field doctors.

The South:
-The South's economy was weakened by the blockade of the ports.
-The Confederate Congress raised taxes to pay for the war, but many states 
and its citizens were opposed to direct taxes by the government.
-The Confederate Government also sold War Bonds to finance the war.
-Like the North, the South issued paper currency, called "blue backs" 
because of the blue ink used to print them.
-As the war progressed the transportation systems of the South collapsed, 
further ruining the economy of the Confederacy.
-Women were a part of the War Effort in the Confederacy, running the farms 
and helping in the manufacturing of goods during the war.

M. The War Years:

-July 21st, Confederates defeat Union Troops at the First Battle of Bull 
-First battle of the Civil War where each side realized that the war would 
last longer than 90 days.
-The idea of a battle on Federal soil was so foreign to everyone that men 
dressed up in suits while women dressed in their Sunday finest, and packed 
picnic lunches to eat while watching the conflict.
-The Union was originally winning the battle, but General Thomas Jackson 
made his men stand and fight, and that rallied the Confederate troops to 
-Jackson earned the nickname, "Stonewall" because of his bravery in not 
moving from combat.
-The Battle encouraged the South with the feeling that they would be able to 
win the war quickly.
-The Union Commander, General Irvin McDowell, embarrassed Lincoln and he was 
replaced in his command by General George B. McClellan.
-McClellan's job was to organize the Army of the Potomac and make them a 
disciplined Army. 

-March 10th, The First Battle of the Ironclads Monitor (Union) v. Merrimac
(Confederate) off the coast of Virginia.
-April 6th & 7th: Grant and Sherman defeat Johnston and Beauregard at the 
Battle of Shiloh in TN.
-Shiloh had more casualties than all of the other American wars combined.
Union Casualties (Dead/Wounded): 13,047 and Confederate Casualties: 10,649
-General Johnston, considered the Best Southern Soldier, is killed in combat.
-General Grant learned that the only way to win the war would be to force 
the South to surrender through conquest.
-Shiloh is a Hebrew word meaning, "Place of Peace"
-April 25th: Admiral David Farragut captured the port city of New Orleans, 
saying, "Damn the torpedoes and full steam ahead."
-Union victories at Shiloh and New Orleans will divide the South in half, 
and the Union will work to slowly break the Confederacy apart.
-General McClellan devises the Peninsular Campaign to capture the 
Confederate Capital of Richmond, VA.
-Always overly cautious, McClellan amassed a force of over 100,000 men.
-McClellan was afraid to confront the Confederates, and was defeated by 
Stonewall Jackson, JEB Stuart, and the new head of the Confederate Army, 
Robert E. Lee.
-Because of his lack of courage and indecisive nature, Lincoln will replace 
McClellan with General John Pope.
-Pope is defeated by Robert E. Lee at the 2nd Battle of Bull Run/Manasses
-Pope is removed from command, and Lincoln re-instates McClellan as the 
commander in charge of the Union Army.
-September 17th: Lee decides to try for a successful invasion of the North, 
by invading Maryland.
-Lee's army combats McClellan's Army at the Battle of Antietam.
-Antietam is the single bloodiest day in American History with over 23,000 
men wounded or killed in action.
-With the intended invasion of the North thwarted by McClellan's Army of 
over 100,000 men, Lee suffers his first defeat in the war.
-McClellan, ever cautious, could have ended the war the next day by pursuing 
Lee, but he believed Lee had more than 100,000 men, and so allowed Lee to 
-Lincoln ordered McClellan to pursue Lee, and when McClellan refused, 
Lincoln removed him permanently from command.
-Lincoln uses the victory at Antietam to release his plan for allowing free 
African Americans to fight in the Union Army.
-The Confederacy counters by saying that any black soldier caught fighting 
against the Confederacy will be sent back into slavery, and any white 
officer caught leading black troops will be hanged.
-The best example of black troops in the War was the Fighting 54th MA, an 
all black regiment that destinguished honor and valor on the battlefield, 
with many of its members winning the Medal of Honor.
-September 22nd: Lincoln unveils the Emancipation Proclamation
-Slaves that reside in States that are in rebellion will be free starting 
January 1st, 1863.
-Lincoln does not say that slaves in the Border States would be free because 
he does not want them to turn to the Confederacy.

-January 1st: Emancipation takes place; slaves in states in rebellion are 
free as Union troops liberate them.
-May 1st-4th: Lee defeats "Fighting" Joe Hooker's Union Army at the battle 
of Chancellorsville, VA.
-Hooker had 75,000 men, while Lee had 50,000, yet Hooker lost 17,287 men.
-Lee loses his best General; Stonewall Jackson is killed by one of his own 
men, when a gun goes off.  Jackson has his arm amputated off, but dies from 
complications with pneumonia eight days later.
-July 1st-3rd: General Meade defeats Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg
-Turning point of the Civil War, for the South begins a steady decline. It 
was the South's last attempt at getting England to back its fight for 
-Lee had invaded Pennsylvania to get his men supplies, namely shoes from the 
factory in Gettysburg, PA.
-Fighting culminated in "Picket's Charge" a suicidal attempted Confederate 
Charge across an open field to capture the high ground which the Union 
-On July 4th, Lee retreated to the South, after losing more than half of his 
men, 28,063 killed or wounded.
-November 19th: Lincoln dedicates the Battlefield and Cemetary at Gettysburg 
with the Gettysburg Address.
-Lincoln was not the keynote speaker, but stated that "the government of the 
people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth." 
which foreshadowed the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.

-Lincoln now rested his hopes of winning the War on General Ulysses S. 
Grant, and William Tecumseh Sherman.
-Grant and Sherman believed in "Total War"
-Total War: War waged with little regard for the welfare of troops on either 
side or for enemy civilians; the objective is to destroy both the human and 
the economic resources of the enemy.
-In Total War:
1. No prisoner-of-war exchanges, which culminated in the harsh treatment and 
starvation of Union soldiers at the Confederate POW Camp of Andersonville
2. Destroy all of the enemies supplies and force them into submission.
-May 5th-7th, The Battle of the Wilderness:
-Grant, Meade, vs. Lee
-Fighting took place near Chancellorsville, then moved towards Richmond 
where Lee once again blocked Grant's advancement at the Battle of Cold Harbor
-June 1-13th: The Battle of Cold Harbor, VA
-An area of VA, about 10 miles from Richmond, where Grant made an 
unsuccessful attempt to drive his forces through Lee's center.
-One Confederate said of the killing of so many Union soldiers, "It was 
inexplicable and incredible butchery. We have met a man, this time, who 
either does not know when he is whipped, or who cares not if he loses his 
whole army."
-Grant will lose over 60,000 men, more men than Lee's entire army.

The Election of 1864:
-1864 was an election year, pitting Abraham Lincoln (Republican) against 
George McClellan (Democrat)
-McClellan portrayed himself as the "Candidate for Peace" saying that if 
elected he would end the war.
-Democrats were getting "Copperheads", northerners who supported the South 
during the Civil War, and peace advocates to form an anti-war platform.
-Lincoln faced a tough challenge as many northerners resented the war, 
conscription (the draft), and abolition.
-Lincoln also faced challenges in his own political party as "Radical 
Republicans", people who felt that Lincoln had not gone far enough in 
punishing the South through the war, picked John C. Fremont as their 
-To appease Southern sympathizers Lincoln chose as his running mate, Andrew 
Johnson from TN who was the only southern senator not to leave during 
-Lincoln was the moderate candidate, who stood between the proponents for 
peace and those who felt he wasn't seeking enough punishment on the South.
-Lincoln and Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens met in secret to 
work out negotiations for settling the war; reunion, abolition, and amnesty 
for Confederates.
-Southern members of the Confederate Government were opposed to it, 
especially the term amnesty, which they viewed as meaning they were 
-Lincoln then gave Grant permission to begin his southern campaign 
of "leaving every Southern plantation sacked, and every Southern city in 
-Sherman begins a military campaign of slash and burn tactics committed 
against southern cities by the Union, so as to destroy and lay waste to the 
supplies Lee would need to keep his army fighting.
-Sherman attacks Chattanooga on 11/23/1863
-Sherman marches through and Kennesaw Mt. GA 6/27/1864
-Sherman marches into and burns Atlanta, 9/2/1864
-These victories proved the decisive factor in the election of 1864.
-Sherman's success ruins any hope of McClellan winning the election, while 
the Radical Republicans and Fremont give up any hope of defeating Lincoln.
-By 12/21/1864 Sherman captures the City of Savannah, GA without firing a 
shot.  Upon his victory he telegraphs Lincoln stating, "Mr. President, an 
early Christmas gift.  I give you the City of Savannah."

-By 1865 the Confederacy was dying.  Confederate government officials tried 
to negotiate a deal with the Union, but Lincoln would have nothing but 
unconditional surrender.
-In April of 1865 Federal Troops capture the City of Richmond burning it to 
the ground.
-Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, hoping to escape to TX, was 
captured by Union troops and jailed.
-On April 9th, 1865 Lee surrendered to Grant after the Union Army had cut 
off his supplies and surrounded the Northern Army of Virginia.
-The Terms of Surrender:
1. Confederate troops will not be prosecuted for treason
2. Confederate soldiers would get to keep their fire-arms and horses to take 
back with them.

-On April 14th, 1865 (Good Friday) Fort Sumter was returned to the Union
-President Lincoln and his wife attended the play, "Our American Cousin" at 
Ford's Theater.
-White watching the show, the actor John Wilkes Booth, shot Lincoln in the 
head, before jumping to the stage shouting, "Sic Semper Tyrannis" (Thus be 
it always to tyrants)
-Booth had been part of a larger conspiracy to kill the President, Vice 
President, and the Cabinet.
-The conspiracy fell apart when Booth's accomplices backed out of the plan 
at the last minute.
-Booth was hunted down two weeks later and shot by Union troops when trying 
to flee a burning barn.
-Lincoln died on April 15th, 1865.
-Secretary of War Edmund Stanton said, "Now he belongs to the ages"
-Lincoln's death caused great calamity in the South as Northern Radical 
Republicans vowed to avenge Lincoln's assassination by inflicting punishment 
on the South.
-Andrew Johnson became the 17th President of the United States.

VIII President Andrew Johnson:
Democrat (Elected on the Union Ticket with Lincoln)
Vice President: No Vice President

A. The Tailor President:
-Born poor in Raleigh, NC, Andrew Johnson never went to school.
-Johnson was apprenticed to a tailor till he was 21, but he felt the act of 
apprenticeship demeaning, and ran away, making his way to TN.
-While in TN, Johnson opened his own tailorshop, owned his own slaves, and 
-Johnson always remembered his background as a poor white man, and despised 
wealthy plantation owners.
-After winning the mayorial election, he quickly moved up the political 
ranks, becoming a state assemblyman, TN Governor, and then Senator.
-He was the only Southern Senator not to secede at the beginning of the war.
-Lincoln chose him as his running mate in 1864 because he felt a Southern 
runningmate would help bind the nation back together.

B. The Era of Reconstruction:
-Reconstruction lasted from 1865-1877
-The Government faced the task of reviving the Southern Economy, Re-Building 
the Infrastructure, and Protecting Civil Rights.

C. The Freedmen's Bureau:
-Created by Congress on March 3rd, 1865
-Established to help former slaves get educated, develop job/trade skills, 
buy land, develop a family life.
-Provided; Food, Clothing, Medical care, and Education
-Head of the Freedmen's Bureau was General Oliver O. Howard (founder of 
Howard University)
-Greatest success was the educating and improving the literacy skills of 
over 200,000 former slaves.
-Originally former slaves were entitled to "40 acres & a mule", the land 
coming from confiscated land from plantations.  This rumour spread 
throughout the slave community, though it never came to fruition.
-The Freedmen's Bureau charter was in constant debate in Congress, with its 
number one opponent, President Johnson, vetoing the charter in 1869.  The 
charter finally expired in 1872.

D. Presidential Reconstruction:
-In 1863 President Lincoln divised the 10% plan, in which 10% of a Southern 
state's population that voted in the 1860 Presidential Election, would have 
to take an oath of allegiance to the Union before that state could be 
-Lincoln also believed that the South had not legally broken away from the 
Union, and was therefore was a state in rebellion, not a seperate country.
-Upon Lincoln's assassination, President Johnson adopted Lincoln's agenda as 
his plan for Presidential Reconstruction.
-Radical Republicans opposed the 10% plan as being to lenient.
-Johnson also supported the policy of stripping former Confederate leaders 
of the right to vote.
-The only way that the former confederate leaders could regain their right, 
was through applying for a Presidential Pardon.  Regular soldiers in the 
Confederate Army received amnesty from Johnson, and did not have to seek a 
-Confederate states must also reenforce and adopt the Emancipation and the 
XIII, XIV Amendments.
-Johnson also supports the rights of the states in creating Black Codes, 
which were created to limit the Civil Rights of freed slaves.

E. Congressional Reconstruction:
-Congressional Reconstruction was led by the Radical Republicans, among whom 
were Thaddeus Stevens (House) Charles Sumner & Benjamin Wade (Senate).
-Radical Republicans believed in supporting the 50% Plan or Wade-Davis Bill, 
which said that a state could re-enter the Union when 50% of its voting 
population in 1860 took an oath of allegiance.
-The Radical Republicans believed in stripping former Confederates of their 
rights, and were greatly opposed to the idea that many former Confederates 
were being re-elected to the Congress, among whom were 4 former Generals of 
the Confederate Army, and the former Vice President of the Confederacy, 
Alexander Stephens.
-Strict Enforcement of the Emancipation, XIII Amendment
-Support the Freedmen's Bureau
-Many northerners who moved South looking for political and economic wealth 
were called Carpetbaggers.
-Southerners who worked with the carpetbaggers were called Scalawags.
-Support getting Freedmen elected to the Congress; ex. Hiram Revels (the 
first African American elected to the Senate in 1870)
-Were opposed to the idea that the South would gain seats in Congress 
knowing that the 3/5ths compromise was null and void.
-To prevent former Confederates from repealing the XIII Amendment, Congress 
passes the XIV Amendment in 1866 which; Grants Citizenship and Civil Rights 
to ALL AMERICANS, reduces representation in Congress to States that reject 
the XIV Amendment, Prevents former Confederates who had committed treason 
from holding Federal office, Adopts Confederate War Debt.
-Suffragets were opposed to the law for it did not infer these rights upon 

F.  Military Reconstruction:
-To enforce Reconstruction, Congress passed the Reconstruction Act on 3/2/67
-The Reconstruction Act:
1. Divided the South into 5 Military Districts
2. Put a Military General incharge of each district as a "Governor"
3. Placed 20,000 Union troops into each Region to enforce the laws of 
-Congress also stated that in order for a Southern state to rejoin the Union 
they must ratify the XIV & XV Amendments
-The XV Amendement granted African Americans the Right to Vote, and again 
excluded suffragets.
-Southern States all made new state constitutions supporting the Amendments, 
and were admitted to the Union starting with TN on 7/24/1866 
(see chart. pg. 499)

G.  Realities of Reconstruction:
-With new found rights, African American males formed the Union League, 
which educated African Americans about civic duties, and campaigned for 
Republican candidates.
-The League also; built churches, schools, recruited militias, and protected 
the rights of African Americans from being exploited.
-Many supporters also helped elect African Americans to the Senate and 
House, where they supported candidates who created "Black Reconstruction".
-Some black politicians were used or exploited by Carpetbaggers who 
embezzled funds from the State legislatures and Congressional Bills.

H.  The Ku Klux Klan:
-Founded by the former Confederate General, Nathan Bedford Forrest
-Called the "Invisible Empire of the South", the KKK would wear hoods and 
garments which would startle and scare their victims.
-Burning crosses, burning down Freedmen Schools, Freedmen Bureau Buildings, 
Black Churches, Lynching African Americans and Whites, were all tools of 
intimidation for the Klan.
-To fight against the Klan Congress passed the Ku Klux Klan Act & Force Acts 
of 1870 & 1871 which made the Acts of the Klan illegal.

I. Purchasing Alaska:
-The lone success of Johnson's Presidency was the purchasing of Alaska.
-In 1867 Secretary of State William Seward purchased Alaska from Russia for 
$7.2 million.
-Russia believed that Alaska was a liability, because it had been "furred 
out", and did not want to lose the land to the British, if they ever fought 
against each other in another war.
-Known as "Seward's Folly" or "Seward's Icebox", the purchase of Alaska was 
seen as a large waste of money.
-Many did not know that Alaska had a large supply of gold, silver, oil
-Alaska is the largest state in the Union, covering over 25% of the 
Continental United States (see map comparison pg. 505)

J.  Impeachment:
-President Johnson opposed openly the laws Congress was passing during 
-Congress, irate at Johnson's actions, passed the "Tenure of Office Act," 
which stated that the President could not remove a member of his Cabinet 
without the approval of the Senate.
-Johnson, outraged that Congress would try to userp Presidential Authority, 
ignored Congress and fired his Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton.
-The House voted to impeach Johnson for "high crimes and misdemeanors" for 
violating an Act of Congress.
-Johnson believed that the Tenure of Office Act was unconstitutional, yet 
faced a tough case against Radical Republicans (Stevens, Wade, Butler, 
-Johnson was found not guilty by one vote, yet was weakened as President.
-Called the "Dead Dog of the White House", Johnson was ignored by Congress 
for the rest of his Tenure until Grant was elected President.

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