Chapter 11 Test Review
Section 1 Early Industry and Invention
- Main Idea: New machines and factories changed the way people lived and worked in the late 1700s and early 1800s.
- What is a textile mill?
- A factory where they make cloth.
- Who built the first successful water powered textile mill in the country?
- During the Industrial Revolution factory machines replaced hand tools and large-scale manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work.
- The factory system brought many workers and machines together under one roof.
- Why did factories first come to New England?
- Factories needed water power, and New England had many fast-moving rivers. For transportation it also had ships and access to the ocean. New England also had a willing labor force.
- The Lowell Mills employed farm girls who lived in company owned boardinghouses.
- What are interchangeable parts?
- Parts that are exactly alike.
- Interchangeable parts sped up production, made repairs easy, and allowed the use of lower paid less-skilled workers.
- What did Robert Fulton invent?
- Robert Fulton invented a steamboat that could move against the current or a strong wind.
- What did Samuel F. B. Morse invent, and how was it used?
- Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph. This machine sent long and short pulses of electricity along a wire. These pulses could be translated into letters and messages. It took only seconds to communicate with someone in another city.
- What did John Deere invent?
- John Deere invented a light weight steel plow.
- New technologies linked regions and contributed to national unity. Midwestern farmers grew food to feed Northeastern factory workers. In turn, Midwestern farmers became a market for Northeastern manufactured goods. The growth of Northeastern textile mills increased demand for Southern cotton. This led to the expansion of slavery in the South
Section 2 Plantations and Slavery Spread
- Main Idea: The invention of the cotton gin and the demand for cotton caused slavery to spread in the South.
- Who invented the cotton gin?
- Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin.
- What was the purpose of the cotton gin?
- The cotton gin made the cotton-cleaning process far more efficient.
- What were the four ways the cotton gin changed life in the South?
- Cotton farming moved westward into Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and eventually Texas.
- Planters grew more cotton, and cotton exports increased.
- More Native American groups were driven off Southern land.
- Slavery continued to be an important source of labor.
- About one-third of white families owned slaves in 1840.
- In 1840 about one-third of the South’s population was enslaved African Americans.
- Enslaved people expressed their religious beliefs in spirituals, religious folk songs.
- Spirituals often contained coded messages about a planned escape.
- African –American spirituals later influenced blues, jazz,
and other forms of American music.
- The most famous slave rebellion was led by Nat Turner in Virginia in 1831
Section 3 Nationalism and Sectionalism
- Main Idea: Patriotic pride united the states, but tension between the North and South emerged.
- Nationalism is a feeling of pride, loyalty and protectiveness toward your country.
- Representative Henry Clay of Kentucky was a strong nationalist.
- The American System was a plan to make the United States economically self-sufficient.
- What were the three main parts of the American System?
- Establish a protective tariff.
- Establish a national bank.
- Improve the country’s transportation system.
- The period from 1825 to 1850 is often called the Age of Canals.
- The Erie Canal created a water route between New York City and Buffalo.
- James Monroe won the presidency in 1816.
- In McCulloch v. Maryland the court upheld federal authority by ruling that a state could not tax a national bank.
- In Gibbons v. Ogden the court ruled that interstate commerce could be regulated only by the federal government.
- In the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, Spain handed Florida to the United States and gave up claims to the Oregon Country.
- Sectionalism is loyalty to the interests of your own region or section of the country rather than to the nation as a whole.
- Explain the conditions of the Missouri Compromise.
Missouri applied for statehood in 1817. Missouri wanted to enter the U. S. as a slave state. In 1817 there were 11 slave states and 11 free states in the U. S. Adding Missouri as a slave state would give the slave states a majority in Congress. The Missouri Compromise kept the balance in Congress equal by allowing Maine to become a state at the same time as Missouri. It also called for slavery to be banned in the Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36* 30’. (Missouri’s southern border)
- Explain the conditions of the Monroe Doctrine.
In Latin America several countries had successfully fought for their independence from Spain and Portugal. Some European monarchies planned to help Spain and Portugal regain their colonies. U. S. leaders saw this as a threat to America. President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine which stated that the Americas were closed to further colonization. He warned that European efforts to reestablish colonies would be considered “dangerous to our peace and safety.” Monroe also promised that the U. S. would stay out of European affairs. The Monroe Doctrine showed that the U. S. saw itself as a world power and the protector of Latin America. (Fact or opinion)